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Confusion of parts of speech

Misuse of and for also or too

Don’t Say:

– Let me do and the next exercise.

Say:

– Let’s also do the next exercise.
Or: Let me do the next exercise too.

Note:

– And is a conjunction, and can only join similar forms of speech: He came and sat down. We can’t use it instead of the adverbs also and too.

And the two, etc., used for both, etc.

Don’t Say:

– I’ve seen and the two of them.

Say:

– I’ve seen both of them.

Note:

– Never say and the two instead of both. Also avoid and the three, four, etc.

Misuse of after for afterwards, etc.

Don’t Say:

– After we went home for dinner.

Say:

– Afterwards we went home for dinner.

Note:

-After is a preposition and we must use it with an object. Afterwards, then, after that are adverbs of time and we can use them alone.

Misuse of adjective for adverb.

Don’t Say:

-The little girl sang beautiful.

Say:

-The little girl sang beautifully.
We use an adverb, and not an adjective, to qualify a verb.

Note:

– After verbs such as look, feel, sound, taste, smell use an adjective instead of an adverb: Sugar tastes sweet (not sweetly).

Misuse of good for well.

Don’t Say:

– The goalkeeper plays very good.

Say:

– The goalkeeper plays very well.

Note:

-Good is an adjective only, and we can’t use it as an adverb

Misuse of weight as a

Don’t Say:

– Have you weighted the letter?

Say:

– Have you weighed the letter?

Note:

– Weight is a noun and we can’t use it as a verb. The verb is weigh (without the t).

Misuse of afraid as a

Don’t Say:

-John doesn’t afraid of anybody.

Say:

– John’s not afraid of anybody.

Note:

-Afraid isn’t a verb but an adjective, and we generally use it with the verb to be.

A Description List

Don’t Say:

– black hot drink

Say:

– white cold drink

Note:

– white cold drink

Misuse of able as a

Don’t Say:

-The poor man doesn’t able to pay.

Say:

– The poor man isn’t able to pay.

Note:

– Able is an adjective, and we can’t use it as a verb.

Misuse of worth as a

Don’t Say:

-My bicycle worths £150.

Say:

-My bicycle is worth £150.

Note:

-Worth isn’t a verb, but an adjective.

Misuse of pain as a verb.

Don’t Say:

– I pain my leg or My leg is paining.

Say:

– There’s (or I’ve got) a pain in my leg.

Note:

-We generally use pain as a noun, and precede it by have or feel.

Misuse of hot as a noun.

Don’t Say:

-There’s much hot this summer.

Say:

-It’s very hot this summer.k

Note:

-Hot is an adjective only, and we can’t use it as a noun. The noun is heat.

Misuse of it’s for its.

Don’t Say:

– The bird was feeding it’s young.

Say:

-The bird was feeding its young.

Note:

-The possessive adjective its is correctly written without the apostrophe. So also hers, ours, yours, theirs take no apostrophe.

Misuse of shoot for shot.

Don’t Say:

– I had a good shoot at the goal.

Say:

– I had a good shot at the goal.

Note:

– Shoot (in football) is the verb. The noun is shot.

Misuse of died for adjective.

Don’t Say:

– I think his grandfather is died.

Say:

– I think his grandfather is dead.

Note:

-Died is the past tense of die. The adjective is dead.

Misuse of others as an adjective.

Don’t Say:

– The others boys aren’t here.

Say:

-The other boys aren’t here.

Note:

-Others isn’t an adjective but a pronoun. The adjective is other (without the s) We can Say: The others aren’t here, omitting the noun boys.

Misuse of coward as an adjective.

Don’t Say:

– She said, ‘You are a coward boy.’

Say:

– She said, ‘You are a coward.’

Note:

– Coward (= one without courage) is the noun. The adjective is cowardly.

Misuse of plenty as an adjective.

Don’t Say:

– Mike had plenty work to do.

Say:

– Mike had plenty of work to do.

Note:

-Plenty isn’t an adjective, but a noun meaning a large number or amount. The adjective is plentiful: Oranges are cheap now because they are plentiful.

Misuse of truth as an adjective.

Don’t Say:

-Is it truth that Diana’s very ill?

Say:

-Is it true that Diana’s very ill?

Note:

-Truth isn’t an adjective but a noun. The adjective is true, and we use it with no article between it and the verb to be.

Misuse of friendly as an adverb

Don’t Say:

-Andrew behaves friendly.

Say:

– Andrew behaves in a friendly way.

Note:

– The adverbial form is in a friendly way. Friendly is an adjective a friendly game, to have friendly relations with one’s neighbours, etc.

Misuse of opened as an

Don’t Say:

-I found all the windows opened.

Say:

– I found all the windows open.

Note:

-The adjective is open. The past participle is opened: Somebody has opened all the windows.

Misuse of miser as an adjective

Don’t Say:

– Jill loved money; she was miser.

Say:

– Jill loved money; she was a miser.

Note:

-Miser i s a noun, and we can’t use it as an adjective. The adjective i s miserly: She was miserly.

Misuse of rest as an adjective.

Don’t Say:

-I spent the rest day at home.

Say:

– I spent the rest of the day at home.

Note:

-Here, rest is a noun, and we can’t use it as an adjective in the meaning of what’s left.

Misuse of due to as a preposition.

Don’t Say:

-William came late due to an accident.

Say:

– William came late because of an accident.

Note:

-Don’t use due to as a preposition meaning because of. Due, as an adjective here, is used correctly only when it qualifies some noun: His delay was due to an accident.

Fool and Foolish.

Don’t Say:

-Anne said to me, ‘You’re fool.’
Anne said to me, ‘You’re a foolish.

Say:

– Anne said to me, ‘You’re a fool.’
Anne said to me, ‘You’re foolish.

Note:

-Fool is a noun, and requires the article when we use it with the verb to be. foolish is an adjective, and can’t be used with the article after the verb to be.
A fool or a foolish person doesn’t mean an insane person, but one who acts thoughtlessly. We tend to use silly or stupid instead of foolish in modern usage.

No and Not.

Don’t Say:

– I’ve not made any mistakes in dictation.
I have made no any mistakes in dictation.

Say:

-I haven’t (= have not) made any mistakes in dictation.

Note:

– We use no meaning not any, as an adjective to qualify the noun. If the noun already qualified by an adjective, like any, much, enough, we must use the adverb not.
We only use no as an adverb before a comparative: I have no more to say.

So and Such.

Don’t Say:

-It’s such small that you can’t see it.
I’ve never seen a so large animal before.

Say:

-It’s so small that you can’t see it.
I’ve never seen such a large animal before.

Note:

-So is an adverb, and must qualify an adjective or another adverb. Such is an adjective and must qualify a noun.

As and Like.

Don’t Say:

-You don’t look as your mother.

Say:

-You don’t look like your mother.

Note:

-As is a conjunction, and is usually followed by a noun or pronoun in the nominative case. Like isn’t a conjunction, but an adjective which behaves like a preposition in being followed by a noun or pronoun in the objective case.