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Conditional Sentences

If Conditions

Structure:    a) If + present + future

  1. b) If + past + future in the past (would)
  2. c) If + past perfect + future perfect in the past
  3. d) If + present perfect + future/present.

if can be at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence:

(a) If you come by bus, it will be cheaper.

(b) You will miss the train if you do not come early.

(c) Eat something if you are hungry.

(d) It will be comfortable if you come by train.

(e) What will you do if you fail to get the job?

(f) How will you go if you miss the last train?

(g) Where will they go if they lose their paternal homestead.

Now study the structure

(i)      If + Present + present

  1. If you read a lot, you learn a lot.
  2. If you come late, you miss the train.
  3. We are going to play if it does not rain.
  4. If the students respect their teachers, they love them most.

(ii) If + Present + Future

  1. If you come, I shall go.
  2. If you read regularly, you will do well in the examination.
  3. If you earn much, you will become rich.
  4. If he is late, he will miss the train.

(iii) If + Past + Future in the past

  1. If you studied attentively, you would not fail in the examination.
  2. If you lived in America, you would speak English.
  3. If you worked hard, you could shine in life.
  4. If I had enough money, I could set up a hospital.
  5. If you tried, you could do it.

(iv) If / When + present perfect + future

  1. If you have finished the work, you will get a prize.
  2. If you have written the letter, I shall post it.
  3. When you have finished your lesson, you can take rest.

Imperative Sentence and If :

(a)      Put the television off if there is no interesting programme.

(b)     Read the lesson attentively if you want to learn well.

(c)      Go to school if it does not rain.

(d)     If I am late this afternoon, don’t wait for me.

(e)      Start now if you want to reach before sunset.

(f)      Eat a balanced diet if you want to possess good health.

 

In conversation, we often use “If+part of the sentence”:

Are you going to the circus?

Yes, if I get a ticket.

Change the following sentences into If + Present + Present:

(a)      If you practised speaking, you would speak better English.

(b)     If Rina came, Mina would go.

(c)      If you came late, you would miss the train.

(d)     If you neglected your studies, you would fail in the examination.

(e)      If I got a visa, I could go to America.

Conditional Sentence & ‘Modals’:

(a)      You can stay if you want.

(b )    You must read well if you want to pass well.

(c )     You ought to respect your parents if you want to prosper in life.

(d)     I am going to the function if I can get a ticket.

(e)      We can go to the sea beach if the weather is fine.

(f)      If, you are looking for him, you had better go to his office.

Conditional perfect :

(a)      I would have helped you if you had asked me for help.

(b)     If you had informed me, I would have gone to see you.

Structure :   If + past perfect in the conditional clause:

Would have + past participle in the main clause.

Note :          Here subordinate clause is conditional perfect. If may be replaced by had. If I had learnt the lesson well, I would have answered the question. Had I learnt the lesson well, I would have answered the question.

 

Exercise :

  1. Change the following sentences into conditional perfect :

(a)      If you practised speaking, you would speak better English.

(b)     If Rina came, Shila would go.

(c)      If you came late, you would miss the train.

(d)     If you neglected your studies, you would fail in the exam.

(e)      If I were you, I would do it.

  1. Complete the following according to structure: If + Present + Future

(a)     If you pass your examination, [dash].

(b)   If you play in the rain, [dash]

(c)    [dash] nobody will believe you.

(d)  [dash] the teacher will punish you.

(e)  If you work hard, [dash]

 

  1. Make sentences using the structure:

If + Past tense + Future in the past (would, could, might etc.)

(a)      Stand first in the Class/I give you a prize.

(b)     he/work hard he prosper / in life.

(c)      carry the umbrella / you will not get wet in the rain.

(d)     drink river water I you may get diarrhoea.

  1. Match the following sentences:
1.    If you read regularly

 

2. You could attend the meeting

3.If you want to go abroad

4. You had better leave the place

5.  If you want to meet him

a. You should go to his office

 

b. You can pass well

c.  If you tried

d. You must have visa

e.  If you have talked to him

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